General Knowledge

General Knowledge  for W.B.C.S, State ,ESE, CSE, IAS, UPSC, NDA, RRBs, SCRA, MBA, MCA, BCA, BBA competitive exam, entrance tests, CDS, IES, Bank Probationary Officers (P.O./ T.O/ A.O), L.I.C, G.I.C(A.A.O), R.B.I. Grade ‘A’, Grade ‘B’ etc.

Causes of Religious Movements

From 6th Century BC to 4th Century BC various religious movements viz. Buddhism, Jainism etc. were born and grew up in the Post-Vedic Period known as the Period of Second urbanisation or the Age of Buddha . Modern historians are of the opinion that deep socio-economic and religious issues were involved behind the rise of new religious concept in the 6th century B.C. During the later Vedic period society had become divided into four distinct classes or varnas, such as Brahmanas, kshatriyas, vaishyas and sudras.

Religious Movements

Religious Movements (600 BC - 400 BC).

☼ Causes of Religious Movements:-

☼ Buddhism - Gautama Buddha’s Life:-

☼ Buddhist Council:-

☼ Buddhist LiteratureI:-

☼ Royal Patrons of Buddhism:-

☼ Sects of Buddhism:-

☼ Bodhisattvas:-

☼ Sacred Shrines:-

☼  Buddhist Universities:-

☼ Jalninism:-

☼ Parshwanath:-

☼ 24 Tirthankaras:-

☼ Vardhamana Mahavira:-

Alexander's Invasion

Macedonian Invasion— Alexander’s Invasion (326 BC)•

• In the 4th century BC, the Greeks and the Iranian fought for the supremacy of the world. Under the leadership of Alexander of Macedonia, the Greek finally destroyed the Iranian empire.

• The next foreign invader who came to India after Persians were Greeks. 

• Alexander succeeded his father Philip II to the throne of Macedonia.

• He was then only 20 years of Age.

Darius’s Invasion

► Foreign Invasions

Iranian / Persian Invasion— Darius’s Invasion (516 BC).

• The Achaemenian rulers of Iran (Persia), who expanded their empire at the same time as the Magadhan princes, took advantage of the political disunity on the North-West Frontier of India.

Nanda Dynasty

Nanda Dynasty : 344 BC - 323 BC.

• The Shisunaga dynasty was overthrown by Mahapadma who established a new line of kings known as the Nandas.

Mahapadma was the founder of the Nanda dynasty.

• Mahapadma is known as Sarvakshatrantak i.e. Uprooter of all the Kshatriyas (Puranas) and Ugrasena i-e. Owner of huge army (Pali texts).

Shisunaga Dynasty

☼ Shisunaga Dynasty : 412 BC - 344 BC.

Nag-Dasak was unworthy to rule. So the people got disgusted and elected Shisunaga as the King, the minister of the last king.

• The most important achievement of Shisunaga was the destruction of the Pradyota dynasty of Avanti. This brought to an end the hundred year old rivalry between Magadha and Avanti. From then on Avanti become a part of the Magadha rule.