Syllabus for WBCS Anthropology Optional Paper [Code:13]
Paper – I :
Meaning and scope of Anthropology; Relationship with other disciplines; Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :
(a) Social-cultural Anthropology,
(b) Physical and biological anthropology,
(c) Archaeological Anthropology; Human Evolution and emergence of Man;
Phylogenetic status, characteristics and distribution of the following :
(a) Prepleistocence fossil primates-Oreopithecus,
(b) South and East African hominids-Plesianthropus/Australopithecus Africaus, Paranthropus, Australopithecus,
(c) Paranthropus-Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis,
(d) Homo heidelbergensis,
(e) Neanderthal man-La-chapelle-aus-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmelites types (Progressive type),
(f) Rhodesian man,
(g) Homo sapiens-cromognon, Grimaldi, Chancelede;
Cultural Evolution-broad outlines of pre-historic cultures :
(a) Paleolithic, (b) Mesolithic, (c) Neolithic, (d) Chalcolithic, (e) Copper-Bronze age, (f) Iron age;
Family; Concept of kinship; Marriage, Study of Culture and Civilization; Concent of Social Change and Cultural Change; Social structure and social organization, Role-analysis and social network, Institutions, Groups community. Social stratification : principles and form, status, class and power, gender. Nature and types of mobility;
Definitions and functions of religion. Anthropological approaches to the study of religion-evolutionary, psychological and functional. Magic, witchcraft and sorcery; definitions and functions and functionaries; priest, saman, medicine man and sorcerers. Symbolism in religion and rituals, Ethno-medicine. Myths and rituals : definitions and approaches to their study – structural, functional and processual Relation with economic and political structures; Production , distribution and consumption, Economic Anthropology. Exchange : gifts, barter, trade, ceremonial exchange and market economy, Political organizations-band, tribe, chiefdom, state, concept of power, authority and legitimacy. Social control, law and justice in tribal and peasant societies; Culture ecology and sustainable development. Displacement and rehabilitation ; Methods of anthropological study : Basic techniques of data collection. Interview, participant and other forms of observation, schedules, questionnaire, case-study methods, life histories and secondary sources; Concept scope and major branches of human genetics; Concept of race in histrogical and biological perspective. Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; Ethnic groups of mankind-characteristics and distribution in world, racial classification of human groups; Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology ; Dynamics of ethnicity at rural, tribal, urban and international levels. Ethnic conflicts and political developments. Concept of ethnic boundaries. Ethnicity and concept of nation state; Concept of human growth and development-stages of growth-prenatal, natal infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence. Factors affecting growth and development-genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic. Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations – biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies; Reproductive biology, demography and population study. Fertility patterns and differentials. Demographic theories – biological, social and cultural; Demographic methods – census, registration system, sample methods, dual reporting system. Population structures and population dynamics; Biological and socioecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality; Biological consequences of population control and family welface; Application of statistical principles in Physical Anthropology.
Paper – II :
Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization-Pre-historic (Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Vedic and post-Vedic beginnings. Contributions of the tribal cultures.
Demographic profile of India-Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population, factors influencing its structure and growth.
The basic structure and nature of traditional Indian social system-a critique. Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, rina and Rebirth. Theories on the origin of caste system, Jajmani system. Structural basis of inequality in traditional Indian society. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.
Aspects of Indian village-social organizations of agriculture, impact of market economy on Indian villages.
Linguistic and religious minorities-social, political and economic status.
Tribal situation in India- biogenetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution. Problems of the tribal communities. Developmental projects – tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation : Development of forest policy and tribals, Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal and rural populations. Role of NGO. Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes / Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes; Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes. Social change and contemporary tribal societies :
Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections. Emergence of ethnicity, tribal movements and quest for identity. Pseudo-tribalism. Social change among the tribes during colonical and post-independent India. Impact of Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and other religion on tribal societies. Tribe and nation state-a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries. Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development. Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.