# Single-phase half-wave rectifiers

Engineering Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechanics
Paper Code: ME201

Module I
Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
Introduction: Microscopic and Macroscopic viewpoints
Definition of Thermodynamic systems: closed, open and isolated systems
Concept of Thermodynamics state; state postulate.

Definition of properties: intensive, extensive & specific properties.
Thermodynamic equilibrium
Thermodynamic processes; quasi-static, reversible & irreversible processes; Thermodynamic cycles.
Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Concept of empirical temperature.

Heat and Work
Definition & units of thermodynamic work.
Examples of different forms of thermodynamic works; example of electricity flow as work.
Work done during expansion of a compressible simple system
Definition of Heat; unit of Heat
Similarities & Dissimilarities between Heat & Work

Ideal Equation of State, processes; Real Gas
Definition of Ideal Gas; Ideal Gas Equations of State.
Thermodynamic Processes for Ideal Gas; P-V plots; work done, heat transferred for isothermal, isobaric, isochoric, isentropic & polytropic processes.
Equations of State of Real Gases: Van der Waal’s equation; Virial equation of state.

Properties of Pure Substances
p-v & P-T diagrams of pure substance like H2O
Introduction to steam table with respect to steam generation process; definition of saturation, wet & superheated status.
Definition of dryness fraction of steam, degree of superheat of steam

Module II
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Definition of Stored Energy & Internal Energy
1st Law of Thermodynamics for cyclic processes
Non Flow Energy Equation
Flow Energy & Definition of Enthalpy

Module III

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

Definition of Sink, Source Reservoir of Heat.
Heat Engine, heat Pump & Refrigerator; Thermal efficiency of Heat Engines & co-efficient of performance of Refrigerators
Kelvin – Planck & Clausius statements of 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Absolute or Thermodynamic scale of temperature Clausius Integral
Entropy
Entropy change calculation for ideal gas processes.
Carnot Cycle & Carnot efficiency
PMM-2; definition & its impossibility

Module IV
Air standard Cycles for IC engines
Otto cycle; plot on P-V, T-S planes; Thermal efficiency
Diesel cycle; plot on P-V, T-S planes; Thermal efficiency

Rankine cycle of steam
h-s chart of steam (Mollier’s Chart)
Simple Rankine cycle plot on P-V, T-S, h-s planes
Rankine cycle efficiency with & without pump work
(Problems are to solved for each module)

Module V
Properties & Classification of Fluids
Ideal & Real fluids
Newton’s law of viscosity; Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids

Compressible and Incompressible fluids

Fluid Statics
Pressure at a point

Measurement of Fluid Pressure
Manometers : simple & differential
U-tube
Inclined tube

Fluid Kinematics
Stream line
laminar & turbulent flow
external & internal flow
Continuity equation

Dynamics of ideal fluids
Bernoulli’s equation
Application of Bernoulli’s equation

Measurement of Flow rate : Basic principles
Venturimeter
Pilot tube
Orifice meter

Recomended Books:

Engineering Thermodynamics

Text :

1. Engineering Thermodynamics - P K Nag, 4th edn, TMH.

References :

1. "Fundamentals of Thermodynamics" 6e by Sonntag & Van Wylin published by Wiley India.
2. Engineering Thermodynamics – Russel & Adeliyi (Indian edition), OUP
3. Engineering Thermodynamics – Onkar Singhh, New Age International Publishers Ltd.
4. Basic Engineering Thermodynamics – R Joel, 5th Ed., Pearson

Fluid Mechanics
Text :

1. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines - R K Bansal

References :

1. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines - S.K.Som and G.Biswas. 2nd edn, TMH
2. Fluid Mechanics by A.K.Jain.

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