# Single-phase full converter

Fluid Mechanics

Paper Code: CHE 301

There shall be one compulsory objective type question comprising 10 Nos. spread over the entire syllabus and each carrying one mark.
Two questions are to be set from each module out of which five questions are to be answered taking at least one from each module. All questions carry equal marks

Module I:
Fundamental Concepts: Definition of Fluid, Continuum concept of fluid, Terminologies of fluid flow, velocity – local, average, maximum, flow rate – mass, volumetric, velocity field; dimensionality of flow; flow visualization –
streamline, pathline, streak line, stress field; viscosity; Newtonian fluid; Non-Newtonian fluid; Reynold’s number—its significance, laminar, transition and turbulent flows: Pandtl boundary layer, compressible and incompressible flows.
Fluid Statics: Basic equation of fluid statics; pressure variation in a static field; pressure measuring devices– manometer, U-tube, inclined tube, force on submerged bodies (straight, inclined), center of pressure.

Basic equations in integral form: Basic laws for a system; relation of system derivatives to the control volume formulation; conservation of mass; continuity equation, momentum balance equation-Introduction to Navier Stoke’s and Euler’s Equation, Introduction to roational and irrotational flow, momentum correction factor.

Module II:
Internal incompressible viscous flow: Introduction; flow of incompressible fluid in circular pipe; laminar flow for Newtonian fluid; Hagen-Poiseullie equation; introduction to turbulent flow in a pipe-Prandtl mixing length; energy consideration in pipe flow, relation between average and maximum velocity, Bernoulli’s equation–kinetic energy correction factor; head loss; friction factor-Fanning and Darcy, Moody diagram; major and minor losses; Pipe fittings and valves, schedule no, equivalent diameter.

Module III:
Flow measurement: Introduction; general equation for internal flow meters; Orifice meter; Venturimeter; Notches, concept of area meters: rotameter; Local velocity measurement: Pitot tube. Hot wire anaemometer.

Resistance of immersed bodies: Introduction; concept of drag and lift;; variation of drag coefficient with Reynolds number; stream-lined body and bluff body; packed bed; concept of sphericity; Ergun equation, modified friction factor.

Module IV:
Fluidization: Introduction; different types of fluidization; minimum fluidization velocity; governing equation; industrial use.

Fluid moving machines: Introduction; Basic classification of pumps: Non-Mechanical Pumps—acid egg, steam jet ejector, air lift pump, Mechanical pump: Centrifugal pumps- cavitation, NPSH, Positive displacement pumps (rotary, piston, plunger, diaphragm pumps); pump specification; basic characteristics curves for centrifugal pumps; fan, blower and compressor.

Text Books / References:

1. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: Fox & McDonald, John wiley
2. Unit operations of Chemical Engineering: McCabe, Smith and Harriot,TMH, 6th Edn.
3. Fluid Mechanics, A.K. Mohanty, PHI
4. Fluidization Engineering: Kunii and Levenspiel
5. Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer: Knudsen and Katz, MGH
6. Transport Process and Unit Operations: Geankoplis, 3rd Edn. PHI
7. Principles of Unit Operations: Foust and Wenzel, Wiley, 1980
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