• According to Jain tradition there were 24 Tirthankaras.
• 'Tirthankaras' literally means 'ford makers across the stream of existence' .
• The first Tirthankara was Rishabhadeva/Adinatha.
• The last Tirthankara was Mahavira.
• The Vishnu Purana and the Bhagavat Purana describe Rishabha as an incarnation of Narayana.
• The name of two Jain Tirthankaras— Rishabha and Arishtanemi are found in the Rig Veda.
• We have historical proof of only the last two Tirthankaras— (i) Parshwanath was the 23rd and (ii) Mahavira was the 24th or last Tirthankara .
• Parshwanath was a prince of Benaras who abandoned the throne and led the life of a hermit and died at Sammet-Shikar/Parshwanath (Parasanath) Hill, Hazaribagh, Jharkhand.
His four main teachings (Chaturthi) were 1. Ahimsa (non-injury), 2. Satya (non-lying), 3. Asteya (non-stealing), 4. Aparigraha (non-possession).
• Mahavira adopted all these four teachings and added one more, that is Brahmacharya (Chastity) to it.
☼ 24 Tirthankaras:-
1. Rishabha- symbol is Bull
2. Ajitnath- symbol is Elephant
3. Sambhanath- symbol is Horse
4. Abhiaandam- symbol is Monkey
5. Sumatinath- symbol is Curlew
6. Padmaprabhu- symbol is Red Lotus
7. Suparswanath- symbol is Swastik
8. Chandraji Prabhu- symbol is Moon
9. Suvidhinath- symbol is Crocodile
10. Shitalnath- symbol is Srivatsa
11. Shreganath- symbol is Rhinoceros
12. Vasupujya- symbol is Buffalo
13. Vimalnath- symbol is Boar
14. Anantnath- symbol is Falcon
15. Dharmanath- symbol is Vajra
16. Shantmath- symbol is Deer
17. Kuntunath- symbol is He-Goat
18. Arnath- symbol is Fish
19. Mallinath- symbol is Waterpot
20. Muniswasth- symbol is Tortoise
21. Neminath- symbol is Blue Lotus
22. Arishtanemi- symbol is Conch Shell
23. Parshwanath- symbol is Serpent
24. Mahavira- symbol is Lion