Jalninism & 24 Tirthankaras

Jaininism:-

• According to Jain tradition there were 24 Tirthankaras.

• ‘Tirthankaras’ literally means ‘ford makers across the stream of existence’ .

• The first Tirthankara was Rishabhadeva/Adinatha.

• The last Tirthankara was Mahavira.

• The Vishnu Purana and the Bhagavat Purana describe Rishabha as an incarnation of Narayana.

• The name of two Jain Tirthankaras— Rishabha and Arishtanemi are found in the Rig Veda.

• We have historical proof of only the last two Tirthankaras— (i) Parshwanath was the 23rd and  (ii) Mahavira was the 24th or last Tirthankara . 

• Parshwanath was a prince of Benaras who abandoned the throne and led the life of a hermit and died at Sammet-Shikar/Parshwanath (Parasanath) Hill, Hazaribagh, Jharkhand.

His four main teachings (Chaturthi) were 1. Ahimsa (non-injury),  2. Satya (non-lying),   3. Asteya (non-stealing),   4. Aparigraha (non-possession).

• Mahavira adopted all these four teachings and added one more, that is Brahmacharya (Chastity) to it.

24 Tirthankaras:-

1. Rishabha- symbol is Bull

2. Ajitnath- symbol is Elephant

3. Sambhanath- symbol is Horse

4. Abhiaandam- symbol is Monkey

5. Sumatinath- symbol is Curlew

6. Padmaprabhu- symbol is Red Lotus

7. Suparswanath- symbol is Swastik

8. Chandraji Prabhu- symbol is Moon

9. Suvidhinath- symbol is Crocodile

10. Shitalnath- symbol is Srivatsa

11. Shreganath- symbol is Rhinoceros

12. Vasupujya- symbol is Buffalo

13. Vimalnath- symbol is Boar

14. Anantnath- symbol is Falcon

15. Dharmanath- symbol is Vajra

16. Shantmath- symbol is Deer

17. Kuntunath- symbol is He-Goat

18. Arnath- symbol is Fish

19. Mallinath- symbol is Waterpot

20. Muniswasth- symbol is Tortoise

21. Neminath- symbol is Blue Lotus

22. Arishtanemi- symbol is Conch Shell

23. Parshwanath- symbol is Serpent

24. Mahavira- symbol is Lion

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