NOR Gates

Credit: 3


Introduction of DC power transmission technology, comparison of AC and DC
transmission, limitation of HVDC transmission, reliability of HVDC systems, application of
DC transmission, description of DC transmission system, planning for HVDC transmission,
modern trends in DC transmission.

Analysis of HDVC converters:
Choice of converter configuration, simplified analysis of Graetz circuit, converter bridge 06
characteristics, Characteristics of a twelve pulse converter, detailed analysis of converters..
Control of HVDC converter and systems:
Necessity of control of a DC link, rectifier control, compounding of rectifiers, power reversal
of DC link, voltage dependent current order limit(VDCOL) characteristics of the converter,
inverter extinction angle control, pulse phase control, starting and stopping of DC link,
constant power control, control scheme of HVDC converters.
Harmonics and filters:
Generation of harmonics by converters, characteristics of harmonics on DC side,
characteristics of current harmonics, characteristic variation of harmonic currents with
variation of firing angle and overlap angle, effect of control mode on harmonics,
noncharacteristic harmonic.
Harmonic model and equivalent circuit, use of filter, filter configuration, design of band-
pass and high pass filter, protection of filters, DC filters, power line communication and RI
noise, filters with voltage source converter HDVC schemes.
Fault and protection schemes in HVDC systems:
Nature and types of faults, faults on AC side of the converter stations, converter faults, fault
on DC side of the systems, protection against over currents and over voltages, protection of
filter units.
Multiterminal HVDC systems:
Types of multiterminal (MTDC) systems, parallel operation aspect of MTDC. Control of
power in MTDC. Multilevel DC systems.
Power upgrading and conversion of AC lines into DC lines, Parallel AC/DC systems,
FACTS and FACTS converters.


Text Books:
1. HVDC Transmission, S. Kamakshaiah & V. Kamaraju, Tata McGraw hill education.
2. HVDC Power transmission system, K.R.Padiyar, Wiley Eastern Limited.
Reference Books:
1. The Performance, Operation and Control of EHV Power Transmission Systems,
A. Chakraborty, D.P. Kothary, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, Wheeler Pub.
2. High Voltage Direct Current Transmission, J. Arrillaga, Peter Pregrinu.

Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering, Rakosh Das Begamudre, New
Age International (P) Ltd.
3. High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission, Colin Adamson and N.G.Hingorani,
Garraway Limited, London