Credit: 3



Method of measurement, Measurement system, Classification of instruments,
Definition of accuracy, Precision, Resolution, Speed of response, Error in
measurement, Classification of errors, loading effect due to shunt and series
connected instruments.
Analog meters:

General features, Construction, Principle of operation and torque equation of
Moving coil, Moving iron, Electrodynamometer, Induction instruments

Principle of operation of the Electrostatic, Thermoelectric, Rectifier type
instruments, Extension of instrument ranges and multipliers.


Instrument transformer:

Disadvantage of shunt and multipliers, Advantage of Instrument transformers,
Principle of operation of Current & Potential transformer, errors.
Measurement of Power:

Principle of operation of Electrodynamic & Induction type wattmeter. Wattmeter
Measurement of resistance:

Measurement of medium, low and high resistances, Megger.



Measurement of Energy:
• Construction, theory and application of AC energy meter, testing of energy

  Principle of operation and application of Crompton’s DC potentiometer, Polar
    and Co-ordinate type AC potentiometer. Application.
AC Bridges:

Measurement of Inductance, Capacitance and frequency by AC bridges.

Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO):

Measurement of voltage, current, frequency & phase by oscilloscope. Frequency
limitation of CRO. Sampling and storage oscilloscope, Double beam CRO.
Electronic Instruments:

Advantages of digital meter over analog meters, Digital voltmeter, Resolution
and sensitivity of digital meters, Digital multimeter, Digital frequency meter,
Signal generator.
Sensors & Transducers:

Introduction to sensors & Transducers, Strain gauge, LVDT, Temperature
transducers, Flow measurement using magnetic flow measurement.

Numerical Problems to be solved in the tutorial classes.
Text Books:
1. A course in Electrical & Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation, A.K. Sawhney, Dhanpat
Rai & sons.
2. Electrical Measurement & Measuring Instruments, E.W. Golding & F.C. Wides, Wheeler
3. Electronic Instruments, H.S. Kalsi, Tata Mc-Graw hill, 2nd Edition.
Reference Books:
1. Sensors & Transducers, D. Patranabis, PHI, 2nd edition.
2. Digital Instrumentation, A.J. Bouwens, Tata Mc-Graw hill.
3. Modern Electronic instrumentation & Measuring instruments, A.D. Heltric & W.C. Copper,
Wheeler Publication.
4. Instrument transducers, H.K.P. Neubert, Oxford University press.