# Syllabus for Physical Science [Class -X]

### Syllabus for CLASS X: Physical Science

Common to Physics and Chemistry

1. Structure of Atom

Concept of atom, Dalton's atomic theory (critical study not required).

Nucleus and extranuclear electrons. Structure of nucleus-constituents (protons and neutrons only). Simple mention of nuclear force.

Mass and charge of electron, proton, neutron.

Planetary model of atom- similarities and dissimilarities with solar systems.

Distribution of electrons in K,L,M,N, shell; Electronic configuration up to Calcium.

Atomic number and mass number

Atomic mass (based on $${}^{12}C = 12.00000$$

Nuclide (an atom with a particular atomic number and mass number).   Isotopes (Definition)-lsotopes oL hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, chlorine.   Isotopes have similar chemical properties. Ions—definition with example.

2. Properties of gases pressure and temperature

Boyle's Law : Statement and explanation with mathematical expression.

Charles' Law: Statement and explanation with mathematical expression.

Concept of Kelvin (absolute) temperature. Kelvin Scale-relationship with Celsius scale. Charles' Law in terms of Kelvin temperature. Standard temperature and pressure (STP).

Combined Charles' Law and Boyle's Law PV/T = constant.

Simple numerical problems. Brief mention of the motion of gas molecules and dependence of pressure and    temperature on such motion (very elementary non-mathematical discussion).

Concept of molecules.

Statement and explanation of Avogadro's Law.

Molecular mass based on  $${}^{12}C = 12.00000$$.

Gram atomic mass and gram molecular mass.

Molar volume.

Statement of deductions from Avogadro's Law (deduction not required) :

Molecules  of common  elementary gases  like Avogadro number (definition with explanation).

Mole-Unit of amount of substance.

4. Simple weight-weight  calculations using chemical equation

Physics

1. Heat

Heat and temperature-(Definition and difference). Unit of heat. Celsius, Fahrenheit scale of temperature and numerical examples on conversion.

Factors determining the quantities of heat-Idea of specific heat. Unit- cal • $${g^{ - 1}}{. ^ \circ }{C^{ - 1}}$$, principle of calorimetry. Definition of thermal capacity and water equivalent. Simple numerical examples;

2. Light Lens & Dispersion

Lens-Convex and concave, optical centre-Focussing action and focalj length, linear magnification, distinction between real and virtual images;

Formation of magnified  real and virtual  images by a convex lens magnifying glass

Dispersion of light-Definition, dispersion of white light by a prism.

Spectrum-Pure and impure (distinction only).

3.Current Electricity & Electromagnetism

Current-charges in motion

Concept of emf, potential difference-Ohm's Law and resistance; units of current, emf and resistance, dependence of resistance on length and  cross-section, resistances in series and parallel, simple problems.

Demonstration with dry batteries, resistances, torch-light lamps and j switch.

Heating effect of current-Joule's law with practical application to heater and electric iron; Electrical power and energy, household consumption.

Household  circuits-switches, fuses, three-pin  plugs, earthing, colour coding of wires.

Magnetic effect of current, Ampere's swimming rule. Action of magnet on current, Fleming's left hand rule. Burlow's wheel and application in case of a motor, electromagnet-its strength and use; use of voltameter and ammeter.

4. Modern Physics

Thermionic emission (Basic idea-no analytical details) and hot cathode ray tube; diode valve (Principle only).

Principle of production of X-rays-properties and uses.

Natural Radioactivity-the nature of $$\alpha ,\beta$$  and  $$\gamma$$ rays, (charge and mass), penetrating power; radioactivity-a nuclear phenomenon, hazards and safety precautions.

Simple idea of fission, fusion (only qualitative idea).

Chemistry

1.Periodic table

A   Periodicity of properties of elements.

Mendeleef's periodic law.

Modified Mendeleef's periodic law.

Periodic table based on modified periodic law (atomic number)

Periods, groups & sub-groups (Mention only).

Periodic properties and their variations in periods (2nd & 3rd periods) and groups (Li, Na, K) and (F, CI, Br, l)-atomic size, metallic character, non-j metallic character, electronegativity (Pauling's definition only).

Position of hydrogen, alkali metals, halogens and inert gases in the periodic table.

Modern long form of periodic table (IUPAC numbering of groups): Full! table to be shown but to be studied upto period 3 (upto Ar).

(Whole topic to be discussed in elementary way. Idea of transition  elements not to be given).

2. Chemical Bonding

What is a Chemical bond?

Simple idea of electrovalent and covalent bonds formed by transfer and sharing of electrons    respectively. Characteristic properties of , electrovalent and covalent compounds and difference between them.

Electron-dot structures of: NaCI, CaO, H2, O2, N2, HCI, H2O  , CH4.

3. Electronic theory of oxidation and reduction

(Simple Idea only)

Oxidation : Loss of electron.

Reduction: Gain of electron.

Oxidant & Reductant.

Simple examples.

Oxidation and reduction take place simultaneously-electronic explanation.

4. Electrolysis; electrolytes and non-electrolytes

Ions and migration of ions during electrolysis. Elementary idea of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Acids, bases and salts as electrolytes.

Electrolysis (definition), voltameter and electrodes.

Electrolysis  of water with  Pt-electrodes, and  electrolysis  of copper electrolytes   and   non-j sulphate with copper electrodes.

Application of electrolysis : (1) Electroplating (with copper), nickel and ; (2) Extraction of metals (example with the extraction of aluminium only. Only materials with their physical states and electrodes required. No technical description or equation required). (3) Purification of copper.

5. Hydrogen Chloride (and Hydrochloride acid), Nitric acid and Sulphuric acid

Laboratory method of preparation of hydrogen chloride and hydrochloride acid from sodium chloride.

Preparation of nitric acid from chili saltpetre. Fuming nitric acid. Catalytic oxidation of ammonia for the production of nitric acid, (only principle-conditions and equations. No technical discussion required).

Contact process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid (only principle-conditions and equations. No technical discussion, diagram, etc. required).

$$S \to S{O_2},S{O_2} \to S{O_3}$$  (condition only)

$$S{O_3}\buildrel {98\% {H_3}S{O_4}} \over \longrightarrow {H_2}S{O_4}$$

Fuming sulphuric acid.

Pollution of air by SO2  -from automobiles, metallurgical process of S containing ores (mention only), from oil refineries.

Danger to historical monuments like Tajmahal. (Stone cancer), possible remedial measures.

Physical properties of HCI, HNO3, H2SO4; Colour, odour, solubility, density and boiling point.

Chemical properties of HCI, HNO3 and H2SO4.

Reactions : with alikali, with metals (Mg, Fe and Cu), with AgNO, and BaCI2.

In case of HNO, reaction in hot and concentrated condition only with the above metals.

Oxidising action of cone. HNO3 and conc . H2SO4 (on Cu-turnings and charcoal)

Dehydration action of conc. H2SO4.

Ring test for HNO3 (Demonstration)

Identification and distinction of the three acids-by AgNO3, BaCI2 and Cu-turnings.

Aqua regia (equation not required)-its use.

Pollution (of air, water) from goldsmith's workhop-its possible remedy,

Acid rain (due to presence of SO2 & NO2 in air).

Uses of hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid & nitric acid.

6. Some important substances-nature and uses

Washing soda, common salt, bleaching powder, slaked lime, copper sulphate, ammonium sulphate, urea, soap, detergent, methylated spirit, vinegar, rectified spirit, naphthalene.

Regarding nature the following points are to be studied: (i) solid, liquid or gas (ii) colour (iii) odour (iv) volatility (v) solubility in water (vi) acid,  base or salt (vii) organic or inorganic (viii) hazard, if any.

Hazard of using ammonium sulphate repeatedly as a fertilizer. Health hazard  of using copper sulphate for colouring vegetables and  as  pesticides.

7. Some metals : aluminium,magnesium,zinc,iron,copper

Important ores (definition of ore to be given) and uses.

Reaction with (i) air, (ii) water, (iii) alkalis.

Alloy-an elementary idea.

Advantage of using alloys over pure metals (Qualitative idea)

Some important alloys : Brass, stainless steel, bronze, duralumin-their composition and uses only.

8. Organic Chemistry

[A] What is organic chemistry?

The role of organic compounds in life process, Biomolecules-definition, some biomolecules such as carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, RNA, DNA-mention only in elementary way. Structures not required.

Bonding  in organic compounds (covalent)-different from  inorganic compounds (ionic and covalent)

Functional group and elementary classification: Hydrocarbons (saturated and unsaturated-alkane, alkene, alkyne), alcohols (only primary alcohols), aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, examples (upto three carbon atoms).

Constitutional isomerism (Definition and example).

[B] Alkane-definition and general formula: Methane (only)-Source (preparation not required), will-o'-the-wisp and uses: burning in oxygen (its value as fuel) Mention that CH4 is a greenhouse gas.

Substitution reaction (1st step of the reaction with chlorine only)

[C]  Alkene-definition  and  general  formula:  ethylene  (only):  Source (mention only, laboratory preparation or production by any method not required) and uses; addition reaction with hydrogen and bromine only.

[D] Alkyne-definition and general formula acetylene (only): Source (Preparation not required) and uses: addition reaction with hydrogen and bromine only.

[E] Monomer and polymer-only definition with example (adition, condensation polymer or polymerisation reaction not required).

Some common polymers: Polyethylene. Teflon, PVC-Their monomer and uses (structures not required).

Hazards of using these substances-their non-biodegradability. Danger of using polyethylene materials indiscriminately and possible alternative.

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