রসায়ন

Submitted by administrator on Mon, 10/08/2012 - 11:58

Chemistry 

1.Periodic table

A   Periodicity of properties of elements.

Mendeleef's periodic law. 

Modified Mendeleef's periodic law.

Periodic table based on modified periodic law (atomic number)

Periods, groups & sub-groups (Mention only).

Periodic properties and their variations in periods (2nd & 3rd periods) and groups (Li, Na, K) and (F, CI, Br, l)-atomic size, metallic character, non-j metallic character, electronegativity (Pauling's definition only).

Position of hydrogen, alkali metals, halogens and inert gases in the periodic table.

Modern long form of periodic table (IUPAC numbering of groups): Full! table to be shown but to be studied upto period 3 (upto Ar).

(Whole topic to be discussed in elementary way. Idea of transition  elements not to be given). 

 

2. Chemical Bonding

What is a Chemical bond?

Simple idea of electrovalent and covalent bonds formed by transfer and sharing of electrons    respectively. Characteristic properties of , electrovalent and covalent compounds and difference between them.

Electron-dot structures of: NaCI, CaO, H2, O2, N2, HCI, H2O  , CH4.

 

3. Electronic theory of oxidation and reduction

(Simple Idea only)

Oxidation : Loss of electron.

Reduction: Gain of electron. 

Oxidant & Reductant.

Simple examples.

Oxidation and reduction take place simultaneously-electronic explanation.

 

4. Electrolysis; electrolytes and non-electrolytes

Ions and migration of ions during electrolysis. Elementary idea of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Acids, bases and salts as electrolytes.

Electrolysis (definition), voltameter and electrodes.

Electrolysis  of water with  Pt-electrodes, and  electrolysis  of copper electrolytes   and   non-j sulphate with copper electrodes.

Application of electrolysis : (1) Electroplating (with copper), nickel and ; (2) Extraction of metals (example with the extraction of aluminium only. Only materials with their physical states and electrodes required. No technical description or equation required). (3) Purification of copper.

 

5. Hydrogen Chloride (and Hydrochloride acid), Nitric acid and Sulphuric acid

Laboratory method of preparation of hydrogen chloride and hydrochloride acid from sodium chloride.

Preparation of nitric acid from chili saltpetre. Fuming nitric acid. Catalytic oxidation of ammonia for the production of nitric acid, (only principle-conditions and equations. No technical discussion required).

Contact process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid (only principle-conditions and equations. No technical discussion, diagram, etc. required).

[tex]S \to S{O_2},S{O_2} \to S{O_3}[/tex]  (condition only)

[tex]S{O_3}\buildrel {98\% {H_3}S{O_4}} \over \longrightarrow {H_2}S{O_4}[/tex]

Fuming sulphuric acid.

Pollution of air by SO2  -from automobiles, metallurgical process of S containing ores (mention only), from oil refineries.

Danger to historical monuments like Tajmahal. (Stone cancer), possible remedial measures.

Physical properties of HCI, HNO3, H2SO4; Colour, odour, solubility, density and boiling point.

Chemical properties of HCI, HNO3 and H2SO4.

Reactions : with alikali, with metals (Mg, Fe and Cu), with AgNO, and BaCI2.

In case of HNO, reaction in hot and concentrated condition only with the above metals.

Oxidising action of cone. HNO3 and conc . H2SO4 (on Cu-turnings and charcoal)

Dehydration action of conc. H2SO4.

Ring test for HNO3 (Demonstration)

Identification and distinction of the three acids-by AgNO3, BaCI2 and Cu-turnings. 

Aqua regia (equation not required)-its use.

Pollution (of air, water) from goldsmith's workhop-its possible remedy,

Acid rain (due to presence of SO2 & NO2 in air).

Uses of hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid & nitric acid.

 

6. Some important substances-nature and uses

Washing soda, common salt, bleaching powder, slaked lime, copper sulphate, ammonium sulphate, urea, soap, detergent, methylated spirit, vinegar, rectified spirit, naphthalene.

Regarding nature the following points are to be studied: (i) solid, liquid or gas (ii) colour (iii) odour (iv) volatility (v) solubility in water (vi) acid,  base or salt (vii) organic or inorganic (viii) hazard, if any.

Hazard of using ammonium sulphate repeatedly as a fertilizer. Health hazard  of using copper sulphate for colouring vegetables and  as  pesticides.

 

7. Some metals : aluminium,magnesium,zinc,iron,copper

Important ores (definition of ore to be given) and uses.

Reaction with (i) air, (ii) water, (iii) alkalis.

Alloy-an elementary idea.

Advantage of using alloys over pure metals (Qualitative idea)

Some important alloys : Brass, stainless steel, bronze, duralumin-their composition and uses only.

 

8. Organic Chemistry

[A] What is organic chemistry?

The role of organic compounds in life process, Biomolecules-definition, some biomolecules such as carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, RNA, DNA-mention only in elementary way. Structures not required.

Bonding  in organic compounds (covalent)-different from  inorganic compounds (ionic and covalent)

Functional group and elementary classification: Hydrocarbons (saturated and unsaturated-alkane, alkene, alkyne), alcohols (only primary alcohols), aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, examples (upto three carbon atoms).

Constitutional isomerism (Definition and example).

[B] Alkane-definition and general formula: Methane (only)-Source (preparation not required), will-o'-the-wisp and uses: burning in oxygen (its value as fuel) Mention that CH4 is a greenhouse gas.

 

Substitution reaction (1st step of the reaction with chlorine only)

[C]  Alkene-definition  and  general  formula:  ethylene  (only):  Source (mention only, laboratory preparation or production by any method not required) and uses; addition reaction with hydrogen and bromine only.

[D] Alkyne-definition and general formula acetylene (only): Source (Preparation not required) and uses: addition reaction with hydrogen and bromine only.

[E] Monomer and polymer-only definition with example (adition, condensation polymer or polymerisation reaction not required).

Some common polymers: Polyethylene. Teflon, PVC-Their monomer and uses (structures not required).

Hazards of using these substances-their non-biodegradability. Danger of using polyethylene materials indiscriminately and possible alternative.

***

Tags

Related Items