Class X Life Science Syllabus
Topic I: Excretion
Definition and explanation,
Plants : Means of removal of excretory products. Mention shedding of leaves, bark and fruits, Types of excretory products and its economic importance (gums, resins, alkaloid and latex).
Animal: Human nephron as structural and functional unit of kidney. Excretion of nitrogenous wastes through kidney after reabsorption of essential substances. Mention in brief the role of Skin. Lungs, Liver in animal excretion.
Topic II: Nervous System and Sense organs with reference to human being
Nervous system: Outline classification and components of Nervous System; Neurone- Structural and functional unit. Nerves - afferent and efferent types, synapse, ganglion, reflex action with common examples. Central nervous system (Brain and Spinal cord - components & functions).
(i)Eye: structure and function.
(ii)Ear structure and function (details not required).
(iii)Sensory functions of Tongue, Skin and Nose.
Topic III: Hormones
General idea, definition, characteristics, site of formation, functions and common examples of natural and synthetic hormones of: Auxin, Gibberellin and Cytokinin,
Endocrine, exocrine glands & mixed glands—definition & example. Site of secretion &function of the following hormones in man: Anterior pituitary, (ACTH, GH, TSH, GTH), insulin (Pancreas), Thyroxin(Thyroid), Adrenalin(Adrenal), Oestrogen, Progesteron, Testosteron (Gonads),
Topic IV: Cell & Cell Division
Definition, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. Morphology of eukaryotic chromosome (mention chromatid and centromere). Composition of eukaryotic chromosome (mention—DNA, RNA &. Protein). Definition of autosome, sex chromosome and gene. Cell division—Types: Amitosis & Mitosis & Meiosis (definition occurrence and significance with example).Cell cycle; definition and phases only. Mitosis - in Plants & Animals - Stages of mitosis, important features with diagrams. Cytokinesis-definition and differences between plants and animals.
Topic V: Reproduction and Heredity
Definition & importance of vegetative, asexual, sexual reproduction & parthenogenesis. Examples from plants and animals. Alternation of generation : Definition and example. Heredity -Definition & explanation : Experiments on Mendel’s monohybrid dihybrid cross (experiments). Mention Laws of Mendel, Mention the reasons for choosing pea plants for Mendel’s experiments. Mention 7 pairs of contrasting characters in pea plants. Mendelian inheritance in Guineapig/Drosophila. Outline concept of sex determination in Man.
Topic VI: Evolution
Definition and Explanation. Evidence: morphological (basic similarity in certain organs like limbs, heart & vestigial organs) and paluentological (Horse), Theories of evolution - Lamarckism & Darwinism (as put forwarded by Lamarck & Darwin)
Topic VII - Adaptation
Definition and explanation. Adaptive features of the following plants &animals - Plants : Lotus, Cactus, Sundri. Animals: Rohu fish, pigeon.
Topic VIII: Virus, Microbes, Diseases & Hygiene
(A) Virus : Definition and characteristics (detail structure not required).
Bacteriophage (definition, example & significance). Pathogenic viruses - Influenza, HIV and Polio virus (mode of transmission).
(B) Microbes: Definition and types (Bacteria, Fungi & Protozoa only).
Bacteria- Definition and significance-
(a) beneficial - Lactobaciilius and Rhizobium,
(b) harmful - Vibrio cholerae, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Salmonella typhosa.
Fungus - Definition and significance -
(a) beneficial - Penicillium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
(b) Harmful - Aspergillus and Puccinia graministritici.
Protozoa - Definition and significance.
(a) Pathogenic protozoa - Plasmodium and Entamoeba.
(C) Disease and hygiene :Diseases caused by carriers - House- fly, Mosquito. Diseases caused by blood transfusion mainly AIDS, Hepatitis and Malaria. Use of Common disinfectants, Vaccination and Immunisation (outline ideas only).