# Vacuum Tube Rectifiers

Chemistry-1
Paper Code: CH101
Credits: 4

Module I

Chemical Thermodynamics -I

Concept of Thermodynamic system: Definition with example of diathermal wall, adiabatic wall, isolated system, closed system, open system, extensive property, intensive property.

Introduction to first law of thermodynamics: different statements, mathematical form.

Internal energy: Definition, Example, Characteristics, Physical significance, Mathematical expression for change in internal Energy, Expression for change in internal energy for ideal gas.

Enthalpy: Definition, Characteristics, Physical significance, Mathematical expression for change in Enthalpy, Expression for change in enthalpy for ideal gas.

Heat Capacity: Definition, Classification of Heat Capacity (Cp and CV): Definition and General expression of Cp - CV. Expression of Cp - CV for ideal gas.

Reversible and Irreversible processes: Definition, Work done in Isothermal Reversible and Isothermal Irreversible process for Ideal gas.

Adiabatic changes: Work done in adiabatic process, Interrelation between thermodynamic parameters (P, V and T), slope of P-V curve in adiabatic and isothermal process.

Application of first law of thermodynamics to chemical processes: exothermic, endothermic processes, law of Lavoisier and Laplace, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, Kirchoff’s law.

2nd law of thermodynamics: Statement, Mathematical form of 2nd law of thermodynamics (Carnot cycle).

Joule Thomson and throttling processes; Joule Thomson coefficient for Ideal gas, Concept of inversion temperature.

Evaluation of entropy: characteristics and expression, entropy change in irreversible cyclic process, entropy change for irreversible isothermal expansion of an ideal gas, entropy change of a mixture of gases.

Work function and free energy: Definition, characteristics, physical significance, mathematical expression of ΔA and ΔG for ideal gas, Maxwell’s Expression (only the derivation of 4 different forms), Gibbs
Helmholtz equation.

Condition of spontaneity and equilibrium reaction.

Module II

Reaction Dynamics
Reaction laws: rate and order; molecularity; zero, first and second order kinetics. Pseudounimolecular reaction, Arrhenius equation.
Mechanism and theories of reaction rates (Transition state theory, Collison theory: ).
Catalysis: Homogeneous catalysis (Definition, example, mechanism, kinetics).

Solid state Chemistry
Introduction to stoichiometric defects (Schottky & Frenkel) and non – stoichiometric defects (Metal excess and metal deficiency).
Role of silicon and germanium in the field of semiconductor.

Module III
Electrochemistry

Conductance
Conductance of electrolytic solutions, specific conductance, equivalent conductance, molar conductance and ion conductance, effect of temperature and concentration (Strong and Weak electrolyte).
Kohlrausch’s law of independent migration of ions, transport numbers and hydration of ions. Conductometric titrations: SA vs SB & SA vs WB; precipitation titration KCl vs AgNO3.

Electrochemical cell
Cell EMF and its Thermodynamic derivation of the EMF of a Galvanic cell (Nernst equation), single electrode potentials, hydrogen half cell, quinhydrone half cell and calomel half cell (construction, representation, cell reaction, expression of potential, Discussion, Application) Storage cell, fuel cell (construction, representation, cell reaction, expression of potential, Discussion, Application).

Application of EMF measurement on a) Ascertain the change in thermodynamic function (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) b) ascertain the equilibrium constant of a reversible chemical reaction c) ascertain the valency of an ion.

Module IV
Structure and reactivity of Organic molecule
Electronegativity, electron affinity, hybridisation, Inductive effect, resonance, hyperconjugation, electromeric effect, carbocation, carbanion and free radicals.
Brief study of some addition, eliminations and substitution reactions.

Polymerization
Concepts, classifications and industrial applications.

Polymer molecular weight (number avg. weight avg. viscosity avg.: Theory and mathematical expression only), Poly dispersity index (PDI).
Polymerization processes (addition and condensation polymerization), degree of polymerization, Copolymerization, stereo-regularity of polymer, crystallinity (concept of Tm) and amorphicity (Concept of Tg) of polymer.
Preparation, structure and use of some common polymers: plastic (PE: HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, UHMWPE)), rubber (natural rubber, SBR), fibre(nylon 6.6). Vulcanization.
Conducting and semi-conducting polymers.

Module V
Industrial Chemistry
Solid Fuel: Coal, Classification of coal, constituents of coal, carbonization of coal (HTC and LTC), Coal analysis: Proximate and ultimate analysis.
Liquid fuel: Petroleum, classification of petroleum, Refining, Petroleum distillation, Thermal cracking, Octane number, Cetane number, Aviation Fuel (Aviation Gasoline, Jet Gasoline), Bio-diesel.
Gaseous fuels: Natural gas, water gas, Coal gas, bio gas.

Reference Books

1. P. C. Rakshit, Physical Chemistry, Sarat Book House (7th Edition).
2. S. Glasston, Text Book of Physical Chemistry, Macmillan India Limited.
3. S. Pahari, Physical Chemistry, New Central Book Agency.
4. S. Sarkar, Fuels and Combustion, Taylor & Francis (3rd Edition), 2009
5. P. Ghosh, Polymer Science and Technology of Plastics and Rubbers, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited.
6. F.W.Billmeyer : Textbook of Polymer Science is published by Wiley India ( is now an Indian Imprint.)
7. Joel R. Fried, Polymer Science and Technology, Pearson Education (2nd Edition).
8. I. L. Finar, Organic Chemistry, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
9. Physical Chemistry, Atkins, 6th Edition, Oxford Publishers.
10. Organic Chemistry, Mark Loudon, 4th Edition, Oxford Publishers.